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Estimated Inactivation of Coronaviruses by Solar Radiation With Special Reference to COVID-19 – The National Center for Biotechnology Information

“90 percent or more of SARS-CoV-2 virus will be inactivated after being exposed [to summer sun] for 11 to 34 minutes.”

Using a model developed for estimating solar inactivation of viruses of biodefense concerns, we calculated the expected inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus, cause of COVID-19 pandemic, by artificial UVC and by solar ultraviolet radiation in several cities of the world during different times of the year. The UV sensitivity estimated here for SARS-CoV-2 is compared with those reported for other ssRNA viruses, including influenza A virus. The results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 aerosolized from infected patients and deposited on surfaces could remain infectious outdoors for considerable time during the winter in many temperate-zone cities, with continued risk for re-aerosolization and human infection. Conversely, the presented data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 should be inactivated relatively fast (faster than influenza A) during summer in many populous cities of the world, indicating that sunlight should have a role in the occurrence, spread rate, and duration of coronavirus pandemics.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32502327/

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Threatening communication: a critical re-analysis and a revised meta-analytic test of fear appeal theory – NIH

Despite decades of research, consensus regarding the dynamics of fear appeals remains elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted that was designed to resolve this controversy. Publications that were included in previous meta-analyses were re-analysed, and a number of additional publications were located. The inclusion criteria were full factorial orthogonal manipulations of threat and efficacy, and measurement of behaviour as an outcome. Fixed and random effects models were used to compute mean effect size estimates. Meta-analysis of the six studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria clearly showed a significant interaction between threat and efficacy, such that threat only had an effect under high efficacy (d = 0.31), and efficacy only had an effect under high threat (d = 0.71). Inconsistency in results regarding the effectiveness of threatening communication can likely be attributed to flawed methodology. Proper tests of fear appeal theory yielded the theoretically hypothesised interaction effect. Threatening communication should exclusively be used when pilot studies indicate that an intervention successfully enhances efficacy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3678850/

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Risk in Vaccine Research and Development Quantified – NIH

The average experimental vaccine has a 6 per cent chance of ultimately reaching the market.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603987/

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A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers – BMJ (2015)

Penetration of cloth masks by particles was almost 97% and medical masks 44%.

This study is the first RCT of cloth masks, and the results caution against the use of cloth masks. This is an important finding to inform occupational health and safety. Moisture retention, reuse of cloth masks and poor filtration may result in increased risk of infection. Further research is needed to inform the widespread use of cloth masks globally. However, as a precautionary measure, cloth masks should not be recommended for HCWs, particularly in high-risk situations, and guidelines need to be updated.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4420971/

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Social Relationships and Mortality Risk: A Meta-analytic Review – NIH (2010)

The quality and quantity of individuals’ social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2910600/

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Into the Eye of the Cytokine Storm – NIH

The term “cytokine storm” calls up vivid images of an immune system gone awry and an inflammatory response flaring out of control (Fig. 1). The term has captured the attention of the public and the scientific community alike and is increasingly being used in both the popular media and the scientific literature. However, while the general concept of an excessive or uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines is well known, an actual definition of what constitutes a cytokine storm is lacking. Furthermore, there is not a good understanding of the molecular events that precipitate a cytokine storm, of the contribution such a “storm” makes to pathogenesis, or of what therapeutic strategies might be used to prevent the storm or quell it once it has started.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294426/